The Spectator

Barometer | 6 September 2018

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Origins of Wonga

The payday lender Wonga has gone into administration. How did ‘wonga’ come to be used as slang for money?

— The term is believed to have derived from the Romany word ‘wangar’ which, although used as a term for money, in fact means ‘coal’. This in turn has Indo-Iranian origins.

— In English, too, ‘coal’ or ‘cole’ were used as slang for ‘money’ in the 17th and 18th centuries, when the possession of coal really did equate to wealth.

Shrinking economies

The Venezuelan economy is estimated to have shrunk by half over the past five years. How does that compare with the most severe economic crises of the past 150 years?

Chile, 1920s

-46.6%

Uruguay, early 1930s

-36.1%

Spain, early 1930s

-34.6%

Peru, 1983

-32.0%

Mexico, 1929

-31.1%

Canada, 1923

-30.1%

US, 1929–33

-28.6%

Australia, 1893

-28.0%

Source: American Economic Review

Where popes go

Pope Francis visited Ireland. No pope left Italy and the Vatican City from 1809 until Pope Paul VI travelled to Jordan and Israel in 1964. Which countries have received the largest number of papal visits since then?

Poland

11

US, France

10

Mexico, Portugal

7

Germany, Spain, Switzerland

6

Israel, Jordan, Turkey, Cuba, Philippines, Brazil, Austria, Czech Republic/Czechoslovakia, Malta

4

Snipping the civil service

Brexit secretary Dominic Raab said he was looking to increase the number of civil servants working on Brexit from 7,000 to 9,000. Which government departments employ the most civil servants?

Department of Work

and Pensions

78,740

Ministry of Justice

65,370

Ministry of Defence

48,110

Home Office

27,830

Foreign and Commonwealth Office

4,390

Department for Education

3,350

And what areas do they cover?

Operational delivery

177,130

Policy

20,370

Tax

16,740

Project delivery

12,710

Science and engineering

11,640

Digital, data and technology

10,410