The Spectator

What happened to the other Dukes of York?

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Old Dukes of York

Prince Andrew is the 14th royal to have held the title Duke of York (three were styled the Duke of York and Albany). What happened to the other Dukes of York?

— Two were killed in battle: Edward of Norwich at Agincourt in 1415 and Richard of York at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460. One, Richard of Shrewsbury, was murdered; he was one of the ‘princes in the tower’ who disappeared in 1483.

— Barring unexpected events, Andrew will be the first Duke of York since Prince Frederick in the early 19th century not to progress onto the throne. Unlike Andrew, Prince Frederick moved closer to the throne throughout his life and was heir presumptive when he died in 1827 of overindulgence. He left vast debts incurred through gambling. Since then, the title was held by the future George V and George VI.

Battle royal

How popular are European monarchies?

Liechtenstein

85%

UK and Commonwealth (2018)

81%

Norway (2017)

81%

Denmark (2014)

77%

Luxembourg (2016)

70%

Netherlands (2019)

68%

Spain (2017)

61%

Sweden (2017)

55%

Climbing the brackets

Do the wealthy pay enough tax? Average rate of income tax paid by income group

in 2018/19:

£11,850–£15,000

2.1%

£15,000–£20,000

5.7%

£20,000–£30,000

9.5%

£30,000–£50,000

12%

£50,000–£100,000

20%

£100,000–£150,000

30%

£150,000–£200,000

34%

£200,000–£500,000

38%

£500,000–£1m

40%

£1m–£2m

40%

Over £2m

39%

Source : ONS

Foreign investment

Which countries saw the most foreign

direct investment in 2018 (in billions

of dollars)?

US

277

China

139

Hong Kong

116

Singapore

78

Netherlands

70

UK

64

Brazil

61

Australia

60

Source: UNCTAD